Vatican City is the smallest country in the world. It is a city-state surrounded by Rome, Italy and is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church. It’s home to the Pope and a trove of iconic art and architecture.
It was granted the status of a country due to the Lateran treaty to end a period of political and religious turmoil within Italy between the church and government.
The Kingdom of Italy and the Papal States were fighting over the control of land in mainland Italy, Rome in particular. In the end the kingdom of Italy invaded the Papal States and forced them to retreat to the Vatican.
The church held the stance that they were being held prisoner in the Vatican and refused to acknowledge the Kingdom of Italy as a political power – to the annoyance of government!
Governed by the Holy See, the Vatican City State is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal – monarchical state (a type of theocracy ) ruled by the pope who is the bishop of Rome and head of the Catholic Church
The name Vatican City was first used in the Lateran Treaty , signed on 11 February 1929, which established the modern city-state named after Vatican Hill , the geographic location of the state.
It is just 44 hectares in size. To put that into perspective, it takes around 40 minutes to walk the whole way around the walls of Vatican City.
The Vatican city population in 2019 was 825 citizens – all of whom have been elected by the Pope.
The internal administration of Vatican City is divided by many officials named by the Pope. In the first place, there is The Supreme Pontiff, a sovereign of Vatican City State which has legislative, executive, and judicial powers for Vatican City. There is the unicameral Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State which has legislative authority delegated by the pope since 1939.
The pope is not the president of Vatican City but he is asked for everything.The current president is Giuseppe Bertello.