The history of external colonisation of Africa can be dated from ancient, medieval, or modern history, depending on how the term colonisation is defined. In popular parlance, discussions of colonialism in Africa usually focus on the European conquests of the New Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa (1884-1914) era, followed by gradual decolonisation.
The principal powers involved in the modern colonisation of Africa are Britain, France, Germany, Portugal, and Italy
By 1914, around 90% of Africa was under European control. However, because of their locations, economies, and political status, Ethiopia and Liberia avoided colonization.
Considering it essential to the success of their economies, the imperialistic European nations avoided the outright colonization of Liberia and Ethiopia—the only two African countries they considered viable players in the trade-based world economy.
However, in return for their apparent “independence,” Liberia and Ethiopia were forced to give up territory, agree to differing degrees of European economic control, and become participants in European spheres of influence.
Ethiopia was officially recognized as an independent state in 1896, after decisively defeating invading Italian forces at the Battle of Adwa. During its brief military occupation during World War II, Italy never established colonial control over Ethiopia.
Liberia is known for being one out of only two African countries that were never colonized .The sovereign nation of Liberia is often described as never colonized because it was created later in 1847 by US.
Although Liberia received partial independence in 1839 through a commonwealth declaration it took them eight years to become a self-independent nation on 26 July 1847.
Even after independence the nation was seen as a colony of America and therefore, it was completely ignored by the European nations during the scramble for Africa in the 1880’s.